Embark on a horticultural adventure, planting the perfect flora for a flourishing Irish paradise all year round.
Our guide covers everything from vivid flowers to abundant vegetables, compiling an all-inclusive list that will turn your garden into a vibrant and delicious sanctuary.
No matter your level of gardening prowess, our guide is your treasure trove for planting success. Let’s delve into the green wonderland of Ireland and unleash your inner green thumb with the ideal plants for every month!
January is mostly a time for planning and preparing for the upcoming planting season in spring, but there are still plants that can be planted during this cold period. Here’s some of them:
Scientific Name: Eranthis hyemalis
Winter aconite is quite easy to spot from afar – they’re known for their vibrant cup shaped flowers set in a leaf with a radiating pattern. They bloom early in the year, even amidst the cold temperatures, signaling the arrival of spring.
They’re typically planted in garden beds but look fantastic along paths or walkways. Although, if you have pets, winter aconite can be toxic to people and other mammals when consumed in large amounts.
- Place the bulb in a hole in the ground and cover with soil
- Needs moderately fertile but well drained soil
- Should be in a spot with full sun or part shade
- Soil must be constantly moist
Fun Fact: Winter aconite are typically resistant to pests, disease and deer!
Scientific Name: Helleborus
This flowering plant is native to Europe and Asia. These evergreen perennials produce beautiful bell-shaped flowers in different colors and are highly regarded for their winter blooming capabilities.
January is an excellent time to plant hellebores. It’s typically planted in well-drained soil in a partially shaded area, with the root ball placed at the same level as the surrounding soil and watered thoroughly after planting.
These evergreen perennial plants produce beautiful flowers in various colors, adding interest to the winter garden.
- Choose a shaded location with indirect sunlight
- Plant with the crown level with the soil surface in wide, deep hole
- Water thoroughly after planting and maintain moisture
Fun Fact: This plant is also called the Christmas rose or Lenten rose.
Scientific Name: Hamamelis
Hamamelis, a shrub or small tree, displays unique spidery flowers in shades of yellow, orange, or red. Its remarkable feature lies in its ability to bloom during late fall to early spring, bringing a vibrant burst of color and delightful fragrance to the winter landscape.
Witch hazel has been traditionally used for its astringent properties, making it a popular ingredient in skincare products such as toners and facial cleansers.
- Plant in well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade
- Make sure that the root ball is level with or slightly above the ground
- Water it deeply after planting
Fun Fact: Witch hazel has a fascinating ability to change the color of its flowers depending on the temperature
Scientific Name: Jasminum nudiflorum
Winter jasmine is a deciduous shrub that features bright yellow, star-shaped flowers. It’s good as a ground cover or as a cascading plant for walls and slopes.
This shrub produces bright yellow flowers on bare stems, adding a pop of color during the winter months. It can tolerate the cold temperatures of winter and benefits from early planting to establish its roots before the growing season begins.
- Choose a suitable sunny or partially shaded spot on fertile soil
- Dig a slightly larger hole and plant the winter jasmine at soil level
- Firm the soil gently and water thoroughly.
Fun Fact: Winter jasmine isn’t a true jasmine despite its name. It’s actually a member of the olive family.
Scientific Name: Helleborus niger
Christmas rose is a perennial plant with dark green, leathery foliage and elegant, bowl-shaped white flowers that often appear in the winter months.
Its purpose is to add beauty and interest to winter gardens, as it can tolerate cold temperatures and blooms when few other plants are in flower.
- You should plant in January for their delicate white flowers
- Shaded areas are best in a hole approximately 30 centimeters wide and 30 centimeters deep
- Let rainfall maintain the soil moisture
Fun Fact: The white “petals” of Helleborus niger are not actually petals but modified sepals, which are leaf-like structures that protect the flower during its development.
Planting in February in Ireland takes advantage of early spring conditions, allowing plants to establish before the growing season begins.
Among the plants you can begin to garden here are snowdrop, winter honeysuckle,cyclamen, winter heath, and siberian squill.
Scientific Name: Lonicera fragrantissima
Winter honeysuckle is a leaf-shedding shrub with clusters of small, creamy white flowers and oval-shaped green leaves. It’s used as an ornamental plant for its fragrant blooms and as a source of early-season nectar for pollinators.
- Winter Honeysuckle is planted by placing it in fertile soil with full sun or partial shade
- Spacing should be 90-120 cm apart
- Rainwater can cover its moisture needs
Fun Fact: The aroma of winter honeysuckle is renowned for being extremely potent and sweet, and it’s especially noticeable in the evening.
Scientific Name: Cyclamen
Cyclamen is a common houseplant with heart-shaped leaves and delicate, vibrant flowers. When planted in February, expect charming and colorful flowers as they grow.
These perennial plants have attractive foliage and bloom in various shades of pink, red, or white.
- Cyclamen should be in well-drained, slightly acidic soil
- Tuber should be slightly poking out of the soil, leaving around an inch of space around it
Fun Fact: In ancient Greek mythology, cyclamen was linked to Hades, the god of the underworld.
Scientific Name: Erica carnea
Winter heath is a low-growing evergreen shrub with small, bell-shaped flowers in shades of pink, white, or purple and needle-like leaves. It’s often utilized as a ground cover or in rock gardens for its vibrant blooms during winter and early spring.
- Winter Heath thrives in healthy black acidic soil with good drainage
- Spacing should be 30-45 cm
- Daily watering when in full sun is a must
Fun Fact: Some varieties have a pleasant fragrance reminiscent of honey.
Scientific Name: Scilla siberica
A Siberian squill has vivid blue, star-shaped flowers on slender stems, as well as grass-like leaves. It yields stunning carpets of blue when planted as a spring-blooming bulb plant in gardens and naturalized areas.
- Siberian squill bulbs need to be set 5 to 8 cm apart and deep in soil
- Plant requires moderate watering
Fun Fact: The blossoms of Scilla siberica are edible and can be used as a beautiful accent to salads or desserts.
Planting in March in Ireland takes advantage of favorable weather conditions, as it’s typically the start of the growing season with milder temperatures and more sunlight.
This is a good time to plant your vegetable garden beds and flower beds!
Scientific Name: Narcissus
Daffodils have long, thin green leaves and trumpet-shaped, bright yellow or white flowers with surrounding petals. It’s popularly included in gardens and floral arrangements as a beautiful spring bloom.
- Select only healthy, firm daffodil bulbs for planting
- Plant them 10-15 cm deep and apart in soil with a pH level between 6.0 and 7.0
- Daffodils need moderate watering as the temperature during this season tends to be warmer
Fun Fact: The poisonous substances in daffodils, which are primarily found in the bulbs, can dissuade animals from eating them and make them resistant to deer.
Scientific Name: Spinacia oleracea
Everyone’s already familiar with the dark green, arrowhead-shaped leaves of spinach. This plant is a common vegetable garden plant across the globe, and is used as a healthy leafy green vegetable in salads, prepared foods, and smoothies.
- Spinach seeds should be planted 1/2 inch deep and 2-3 inches apart
- A pot or raised bed with loamy soil is preferred
- Regular watering, light fertilization, and thinning of seedlings as needed
Fun Fact: It’s generally accepted that Popeye, a made-up cartoon character, popularized the notion that eating spinach instantly gives you more energy.
Scientific Name: Forsythia
This shrub features lovely yellow flowers covering its entire barks. Its bloom announces the onset of spring, similar to the Japanese cherry blossoms, only that it is yellow and not as tall as trees.
Due to its impressive floral display, it is most frequently employed as an ornamental plant in gardens and landscapes.
- To plant Forsythia, ensure a distance of 4-6 feet per plant
- Loamy soil is usually used for this plant
- Consistent watering, pruning, and yearly balanced fertilizer application are a must
Fun Fact: Forsythia shrub wood is robust and flexible, making it ideal for producing equipment like bows.
Scientific Name: Gaultheria procumbens
This low-growing evergreen shrub features glossy leaves and produces tiny red berries. Its aromatic leaves are harvested for their essential oil used in flavorings and fragrances.
Wintergreen leaves have a distinctive minty flavor and are occasionally used to flavor chewing gum, candies, and oral care products.The essential oil derived from wintergreen leaves is used in flavorings and fragrances.
- Wintergreen rhizomes need a 6-inch pot or bed with well-drained, acidic soil
- Ideal in full sun or partially shaded areas
- Daily watering are fertilizers are not needed
Fun Fact: Wintergreen is a low-maintenance plant that is drought-tolerant and deer-resistant.
Scientific name: Raphanus sativus
The radish, which has variations on its appearance, has an elongated or spherical root with brightly colored red, white, or purple skin and crisp, white flesh.
It’s a root vegetable in culinary preparations, giving salads, pickles, and other foods a crisp texture and peppery flavor. Radishes are fast-growing vegetables that can be sown directly in the garden in March.
They are great for early season planting and provide a quick harvest.
- Sow radish seeds 1 cm deep in a sunny spot with well-drained soil
- Thin seedlings to 3 cm apart
Fun Fact: Some types of radishes can mature in as little as three weeks, making them one of the vegetables with the fastest growth rates.
Scientific name: Daucus carota
The carrot plant possesses a tapering root that has a crunchy texture and a range of hues, including orange, purple, yellow, and white. It;s one of the most popular versatile vegetables globally, and is commonly used in salads, drinks, pickles, and as a snack.
- Sow carrot seeds 1/4 inch deep and 3 inches apart
- Ensure consistent moisture during germination
- Good amount of sunlight for a good harvest in 30-90 days
- Carrots require some protection from frost
Fun Fact: The current orange carrot was created by selective breeding in the Netherlands in the 17th century.
April is the ideal month to plant in Ireland because the weather is warm enough for plants to grow, but not too hot. Here’s some of the crops you may begin to plant during these month:
Scientific Name: Solanum tuberosum
A potato is a starchy, tuberous vegetable that is frequently used for cooking in a variety of ways, including boiling, baking, frying, or mashing. It normally has a brown or russet shell with a creamy white flesh inside.
Potatoes are a staple crop and can be grown in various varieties. Planting them in April allows for a longer growing season and ensures a bountiful harvest.
- It’s recommended to plant certified seed potatoes in well-drained and fertile soil
- Depth should be 10-15cm
- Choose a sunny location for optimal growth
- To nourish the potatoes, apply a balanced fertilizer every 4-6 weeks
Fun Fact: It’s the first vegetable to be grown in space.
Scientific Name: Allium cepa
An onion is a bulbous vegetable that has a white or yellowish inside and numerous layers of papery skin. It’s frequently distinguished by its distinctly strong fragrance.
Soups, stews, and stir-fries are among the many foods it is frequently used to flavor and deepen. It’s usually harvested every 10-12 weeks.
April is a suitable month to plant onion sets or seedlings. By planting them in April, they have enough time to establish strong roots and grow into mature bulbs by the end of summer.
- Onions need to be set 1-2 inches deep in soil with sand or compost.
- Fertilize every 4-6 weeks with balanced fertilizer or decomposed manure
Fun Fact: Onions can absorb odors, making them effective at neutralizing the smell of paint or new ink.
Scientific Name: Beta vulgaris
Beets have a round form and a striking reddish-purple color. Because of its sweet and earthy flavor, it is frequently used in salads, soups, and pickled foods.
Beetroot is a nutritious vegetable with both the roots and leaves being edible by roasting pickles, or for salad. By planting in April, you can ensure a steady supply of fresh beetroots throughout the summer.
- Beetroot seeds should be planted 1/2 inch deep and 2 inches apart in full sun
- Water regularly as it’s usually in dry soil and expect to harvest in 60-70 days
Fun Fact: Beetroot juice has been investigated for its potential to improve athletic performance due to its nitrate content, which may improve blood flow and oxygenation during exercise.
Scientific Name: Beta vulgaris var. Cicla
Swiss chard, often known as rainbow chard, is a leafy vegetable that has broad, dark green leaves and stems in a variety of hues, including red, yellow, and white. Both the leaves and the stems are edible.
- It can be sown directly in the garden in April
- Sow Swiss chard seeds 1/2 inch deep and 2 inches apart in
- If in a pot, it should be 12 inches deep
- Choose a fertile soil in full sun
- Water regularly, especially during hot weather
- Remove any weeds that may compete for water and nutrients
Fun Fact: It’s loaded with vitamins A, C, and K as well as minerals like magnesium and potassium.
Scientific Name: Capsicum annuum
The bell pepper or chili pepper has a bell-like shape and thick flesh. It comes in a variety of colors, including green, red, yellow, and orange. It’s frequently used as a vegetable in food preparations, enhancing the flavor, appearance, and texture of meals.
April is a good time to start pepper plants from seeds indoors. Peppers require warmth to germinate and grow, so starting them indoors and transplanting them outdoors once the weather warms up is beneficial.
- Pepper seedlings should be in a well-drained pot or bed
- Spacing is 12-18 inches between plants
- Provide regular watering and sunlight
- Expect fruit or flowers within 8-12 weeks
Fun Fact: The amount of capsaicin, the substance that gives chili peppers their spicy heat, can vary within a species, producing milder or hotter peppers.
May is a good planting season in Ireland because the weather is usually warm and sunny, and there is little risk of frost. The average temperature in May is 15 degrees Celsius, and the days are long and bright.
Scientific Name: Solanum lycopersicum
The tomato is a spherical or oval-shaped fruit with a smooth, shiny skin that can be any color—red, yellow, orange, or even striped. It’s mainly used in cooking, enhancing the flavor and juiciness of foods like salads, sauces, and sandwiches.
May is an ideal time to plant tomato seedlings or young plants in Ireland as they thrive in warm conditions and require a longer growing season to produce ripe fruits.
- Tomato seeds should be planted 1/2 inch deep and 2 inches apart
- Seedlings should be 18 inches apart in an area with strong sunlight
- Water regularly and make sure compost is added every month
Fun Fact: Tomatoes are technically a fruit, not a vegetable, as they develop from the ovary of a flower and contain seeds.
Scientific Name: Phaseolus vulgaris
The common bean or kidney bean is a tiny, kidney-shaped legume that can be white, black, red, or speckled. Its texture can be smooth or wrinkled. In a variety of cuisines, including soups, stews, salads, and chili, the bean is used as a protein-rich component.
- You should plant bean seeds 5cm deep 15 cm apart in rows 30 cm apart
- Make sure to keep the area weed-free, water regularly and pinch out top shoots when pods form
- Use a pot at least 12 inches deep and 18 inches wide
- You can also prepare soil in beds with compost and manure
- The bans will bear fruit or flowers in about 6-8 weeks
Fun Fact: The common bean is one of the “Three Sisters” crops, traditionally grown alongside corn and squash by Native American tribes due to their complementary growth habits.
Scientific Name: Cucurbita pepo
May is a suitable month to plant zucchini or summer squash in Ireland, so you can take advantage of the warmer weather and longer day. A summer squash is a smooth, elongated vegetable with a brightly colored, yellow or green exterior and soft flesh.
Because of its mild flavor and adaptability to both savory and sweet foods, it’s mainly used in culinary preparations such sautéing, grilling, or baking.
- You can simply sow zucchini seeds indoors 4-6 weeks before the last frost date
- Transplant them outdoors when the soil has warmed up
Fun Fact: Some varieties produce edible flowers, which are often used in cooking and can be stuffed or used as garnishes.
Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea
A cabbage has compact, round or elongated leaves that are closely packed and have shades of pale green to deep purple. It’s a vegetable added to a variety of dishes, including salads, stir-fries, soups, and sauerkraut.
- Seedlings should be 45-60cm between plants and 60-75cm between rows
- Water and remove weeds regularly so they can start forming heads well within 10-12 weeks
Fun Fact: Two different cultivars of cabbage have been selectively bred to produce distinctive vegetables like kale, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and kohlrabi.
Scientific Name: Cichorium intybus var. Foliosum
It’s a leafy vegetable with a round or long head and vivid deep red or purple leaves known as radicchio. It’s mixed with salads and can also be grilled or roasted to intensify its unique, somewhat bitter flavor.
- If planting from seed, sow 1/4 inch deep and 1 inch apart
- Soil should be rich in organic matter
- Once the seedlings have emerged, thin them to 6 inches apart
- If planting transplants, space them 12 inches apart
Fun Fact: Radicchio contains anthocyanins, potent antioxidants that contribute to its vibrant color and may have health benefits, including anti-inflammatory properties.
June is the start of summer in Ireland, and the weather is warm and sunny, making it a great time to plant. You can plant almost all vegetables and ornamental plants in this period. Here’s some of them:
Scientific Name: Cucumis sativus
The cucumber is a cylindrical plant with a smooth, waxy green exterior and crisp, juicy interior. It’s a popular ingredient of sandwiches, salads, and as a cooling component in drinks.
Cucumbers are warm-season vegetables that thrive in full sun and start bearing fruit within 6-8 weeks of planting if you plant them correctly.
- Just sow cucumber seeds 1.5 cm deep in pots or 60 cm apart
- Choose a ground in a sunny spot
- Water regularly and use only healthy black soils with the proper compost type
Fun Fact: Its flesh is composed of roughly 96% water, making it an excellent hydrating food.
Scientific Name: Zea mays
Sweet corn is distinguished by its elongated, cylindrical shape and densely packed rows of plump, golden or white kernels. It’s either roasted on the cob, as a side dish, or as an ingredient in diverse cuisines such as salads, soups, and salsas.
Sweet corn is a warm-season crop that requires full sun and fertile soil. By planting it in June, you take advantage of the optimal growing conditions, allowing the corn to grow and develop into tender, sweet ears.
- Plant sweet corn seedlings 45-60 cm apart in a fertile soil
- Rainfall will be enough to cover its water needs
- Apply nitrogen-rich fertilizer
- It’s better to grow it in blocks rather than rows for pollination, and expect it to bear fruit/flowers within 60-80 days
Fun Fact: Sweet corn is harvested at the “milk stage” when the kernels are plump and filled with a milky fluid, which is when it is at its peak sweetness.
Scientific Name: Phaseolus vulgaris
French beans, also known as green beans or string beans, are long and thin with a bright green color and crisp texture. It’s a very versatile vegetable used in a variety of cuisines such as stir-fries, salads, and side dishes.
Beans are a warm-season crop that produces abundant pods when planted in healthy soil.
- Seeds need black and regularly watered soil
- Spacing is about 5-10 cm in rows that are 45-60 cm apart
- The seeds should be planted 2-3 cm deep
Fun Fact: Some varieties of French beans, known as “haricot verts,” are thinner and more tender than regular green beans, making them a popular choice in French cuisine.
Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea var. Sabellica
Kale has curly or smooth leaves with a rough surface that are dark green or purple. It’s a leafy green vegetable that can be cooked, sautéed, or eaten raw in salads, smoothies, and as a nutritional element in a variety of cuisines.
Kale can tolerate cold temperatures and often tastes sweeter and more flavorful when harvested after frost exposure, making it a popular winter vegetable.
- Seedlings should be planted 30-45 cm apart in rows that are 45-60 cm apart
- No specific depth is needed, though you have to properly cover the root ball with soil
Fun Fact: Kale is a member of the Brassica oleracea species, which also includes cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts.
Similar to June, the weather during July is ideal for growing almost all plants, including those planted in June. Some of the other plants you can add to your garden are the following:
Scientific Name: Phaseolus coccineus
These climbing vegetables produce vibrant red or white flowers and long pods filled with tasty beans. The main reason it’s grown is for its edible beans, which are used in dishes like soups and stews.
- In a pot or garden with proper compost, plant runner bean seeds 15-30 cm apart
- Rows should be 90-120 cm apart
- Sow the seeds 5 cm deep.
- Beans need warmth and sunlight to grow vigorously
Fun Fact: The ability of runner beans to fix nitrogen in the soil is well recognized. This enhances the soil’s fertility and is advantageous to nearby plants.
Scientific Name: Calendula officinalis
Calendula, also known as pot marigold, is a beautiful flower that can be planted in July. These cheerful flowers come in shades of yellow and orange and are known for their medicinal properties.
- Plant calendula seeds in moist but not waterlogged soil
- The seeds should be around 15-30 cm apart and planted 1 cm deep
- Since it’s planted in shallow soil, make sure that it is away from other animals like chickens
Fun Fact: The herb calendula is well recognized for luring beneficial insects like bees and butterflies to gardens, which aid in pollination and pest management.
Scientific Name: Lavandula
Lavender is a fragrant and versatile perennial herb that offers beautiful purple or blue flowers. It’s popular for its soothing fragrance and essential oil, which is widely utilized in perfumes, cosmetics, and aromatherapy.
- Plant seedlings in moderately dry areas with 30-60 cm distance from each other
- Transplant them at a depth that covers the root ball
- By planting lavender in July, you allow it to establish its roots during the warm months and grow stronger in the following years
Fun Fact: Lavender is a drought-tolerant plant and can survive in arid conditions.
Birch trees are distinguished by their small trunks and characteristic white bark, which sheds in papery-thin flakes. They generate tiny, winged seeds and have triangular or oval-shaped leaves.
Birch wood is frequently utilized in the production of plywood, furniture, flooring, and papers due to its high value and adaptability.
- Plant birch tree saplings in consistently moist soil
- Spacing is at least 6-10 meters apart
- The root system should be well-covered by soil
Fun Fact: Birch syrup, which has a distinct flavor profile and is used as a sweetener in some foods and beverages, can be made by tapping birch trees and collecting the sap that results.
August, usually the end of the warmest weather in Ireland, is a good month to plant cool-season crops that will mature in the fall or winter. Among the plants ideal for this month are pansies and apple trees.
Scientific Name: Viola × wittrockiana
Small and fragile, pansies have distinct “faces” made up of overlapping petals and dark markings in the center. They are available in a number of hues, such as purple, yellow, orange, and white.
Pansies are mostly utilized as ornaments, bringing beauty to flowerbeds, gardens, and containers.
- By planting pansies in August, they’ll bloom during the late summer and early autumn
- Plant pansy seedlings in pots or in a garden with 15-20 cm spacing
- Water regularly and have them receive ample sunlight in daytime
Fun Fact: Pansies are frequently utilized in alternative and holistic medicine.
Scientific Name: Malus domestica
Apple trees are rounded-crowned, deciduous fruit trees with green foliage and white or pink spring blooms. They produce apples, which come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and flavors.
The fruit of apple trees, which is commonly consumed fresh, used in cooking and baking, and processed into goods like juice, cider, and applesauce, is the main reason apple trees are grown.
- Apple trees require sun, but are common in cold and wet climates
- Plant in August to establish their root systems before the cooler months
- Plant apple trees 6-8 meters apart for standard varieties or 3-4 meters apart for dwarf varieties
- Use a hole that is wide enough to accommodate the roots without bending
- They should be planted deep enough to cover the root collar
Fun Fact: Apples are frequently propagated through grafting or budding.
Scientific Name: Colchicum autumnale
Autumn crocus is a beautiful flowering bulb that produces delicate, six-petaled cup-shaped flowers in shades of pink, purple, or white.
It’s only employed in traditional medicine for its therapeutic benefits, especially in the treatment of gout and other inflammatory disorders.
- Plant autumn crocus bulbs 10 cm deep in moist, sandy loam, or rocky soil
- They bloom in the late summer and early autumn when planted in August
- Ireland’s rainy climate is enough for its water needs
Fun Fact: It’s a toxic plant and very carefully used in body treatments.
September is generally considered an okay planting season in Ireland because the weather starts to cool down and the soil is still warm enough for root development. What you can plant here are those that survive cool temperatures.
Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea var. Gemmifera
Brussels sprouts are a cool-season vegetable that thrives in cooler temperatures. They’re a type of tiny, cabbage-like vegetable that develops in groups along the plant’s stem.
Each sprout has a leafy green color and looks like a tiny cabbage. They can be steamed, roasted, or sautéed and are most frequently used as a healthy vegetable in cuisine.
- Choose a location with full sun and well-drained soil
- These plants should be planted in cool areas only
- Place 60-90cm apart in rows that are 75-90cm apart
- Plant at a depth that covers the stem up to the first set of leaves
Fun Fact: Ancient Rome was where Brussels sprouts were originally grown, but it was Brussels, Belgium, that they became well-known and where they got their name.
Scientific Name: Acer palmatum
A Japanese maple tree has leaves that are typically palm-shaped and come in a variety of hues, including bright red, orange, and green.
The majority of the time, Japanese maple trees are utilized as ornaments, enhancing the beauty and grace of gardens and landscapes.
- September is a suitable time to plant Japanese maple trees in Ireland.
- Plant Japanese maples in moist soil with partial shade
- Since they are trees, they should be 3-6 meters apart
- The hole should accommodate the root
Fun Fact: Some types of Japanese maple have unusually shaped leaves, such as those known as “laceleaf” or “dissected” varieties.
Scientific Name: Brassica rapa subsp. rapa
It’s a root vegetable with a rounded or somewhat flattened shape called rapa, often known as turnip. It has a thin, white or purple skin with flesh that is either white or cream in color.
Turnips are used in food preparation, with both the roots and the greens eaten in a variety of meals such soups, stews, and salads.
- Plant in September to secure enough time to mature before the ground freezes
- Sow the seeds 1 cm deep, spaced at 5-10 cm apart in rows that are 30-45 cm apart
- The soil should never dry and never clogged with water
- Growing turnips prefer colder temperatures
Fun Fact: Similar to carving pumpkins, certain areas typically carve turnips into lanterns for Halloween celebrations. It is thought that Ireland is where these turnip lanterns first appeared.
Scientific Name: Asteraceae family
Asters are perennial flowering plants that bloom in late summer and early autumn, providing pink, purple, blue, and white features to your garden.
- Plant them 30-45 cm apart
- ensure they are planted at the same depth as they were in their containers
- Deadhead spent flowers to encourage prolonged blooming and prevent self-seeding
- Cut back the plants in late fall or early spring to maintain their shape and promote healthy growth
Fun Fact: The word “aster” derives from the Greek word for “star,” which alludes to the flowers’ star-like shape.
October is a good time to plant cool-season crops that will mature in the fall or winter. You can plant garlic, tulips, onions, and herbs during this month.
Scientific Name: Allium sativum
Garlic is a bulbous vegetable known for its strong flavor and culinary uses. Long, narrow leaves that grow from a bulbous subterranean structure known as a bulb make up a garlic plant’s usual structure. The actual bulb is made up of several separate cloves.
The most frequent usage of garlic is in food, where it gives a variety of foods flavor. It has long been utilized in herbal medicine and is used for its possible health advantages as well.
- Planting garlic in October ensures it receives the necessary cold period for proper bulb formation
- Set their bulbs 2cm deep and at least 10 cm apart
- The soil should not be very loose, not sandy, and should be kept moist
- Avoid overwatering
Fun Fact: Garlic has a history of being tied to folklore and superstitions in several societies. It has been used as a protective charm against illnesses as well as to ward off bad spirits and vampires.
Scientific Name: Tulipa
The tall, slender stem of a tulip plant is covered in colorful, cup-shaped blooms with six petals. Tulips are popular spring-blooming flowers that come in a wide range of colors and shapes and are usually included in bouquets.
Tulips are generally utilized as ornaments, illuminating flowerbeds, gardens, and bouquets.
- Plant tulip bulbs in the fall, preferably 4-6 weeks before the ground freezes
- Plant them at a depth of approximately two to three times their height
- Spacing should be 10-15 cm apart
- They should receive 6 hours of sunlight daily
Fun Fact: Tulips grow toward the light because they are geotropic. Tulips are able to follow the path of the sun throughout the day thanks to this special trait.
Scientific Name: Allium cepa
October is a suitable time to plant onion sets or bulbs in Ireland.
Long, upright green leaves that grow on an onion plant often come from a bulbous subterranean structure. The layers of the bulb itself are closely packed and range in color from white to yellow, red, or purple.
The most popular usage for onions in food is as a flavoring or aromatic element in soups, stews, and stir-fries, among other foods.
- Plant onion plants with the correct measurements by spacing them 10-15 cm apart
- Rows should also be 30-45 cm apart
- The bulbs should be covered with soil and the tops are level with the ground
- Harvest onions when the tops begin to dry and fall over
- Onions are ideal for planting in October to provide them with the cooler temperatures they prefer for bulb development
Fun Fact: The volatile substance released when the onion cells are broken is what gives onions their pungent fragrance and causes watery eyes.
Scientific Name: Hyacinthoides non-scripta
Bluebells are native spring-blooming flowers that can be planted in October. These bell-shaped flowers display charming blue hues and create a carpet of color in woodland areas or shaded gardens.
- For a full spring bloom, plant the bulbs in slightly moist soil that is 5-10cm deep
- Use compost to allow this plant to grow its roots during the winter season
- Once the Irish bluebells have finished blooming and the foliage turns yellow, avoid cutting it back
Fun Fact: Irish bluebells are an important plant for pollinators because their nectar-rich blossoms attract bees, butterflies, and other insects. They are an important food supply for these useful organisms.
If you miss out planting during the summer and fall, you still have November to catch up. The cooler temperatures and ample rainfall provide favorable conditions for establishing plants with reduced risk of heat stress.
Scientific Name: Erysimum cheiri
Wallflowers offer a range of vibrant colors, including shades of yellow, orange, purple, and red. They have slender, lance-shaped leaves and can reach heights of 1 to 3 feet.
Wallflowers are mostly used for decoration, bringing bright colors and a pleasant aroma to gardens, borders, and rockeries. If you plant them in November, you give them an early start to establish their roots before they fully bloom in spring.
- To grow wallflowers, sow the seeds 1 cm deep and 15-30 cm apart
- Wallflowers need dry and healthy soil in warm weather, though they also survive the cold
- Wallflowers thrive in full sun to partial shade, so choose a location that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight per day
- Frequent watering will give you the best bloom
Fun Fact: Wallflowers have long been linked to folklore and symbolism. They were thought to bring good luck and ward off evil spirits in various civilizations.
Scientific Name: Ilex
Holly trees are evergreen and known for their glossy green leaves and red berries. They provide year-round interest, with their attractive foliage and festive berries during the winter season.
It’s popular for its decorative purposes, such as in holiday decorations, landscaping, and as a privacy hedge.
- Plant the saplings in moist soil and should be 3-6 meters apart from other big plants
- The root ball should be covered by soil
- Slightly acidic to neutral soil conditions is highly preferred
- If you want your female holly tree to produce berries, make sure to plant a compatible male holly tree nearby
Fun Fact: Some holly tree species can live for hundreds of years and can reach heights of 50 feet or more.
Scientific Name: Vicia faba
Broad beans are cool-season vegetables that tolerate colder temperatures. Broad beans grow in pods and have elongated beans.
When fresh, the beans are light green and turn brown when dried. They’re most typically grown for their nutritious seeds, which may be cooked and integrated into a variety of cuisines.
- Take advantage of the cooler weather so they can grow well until spring
- Avoid extreme temperatures
- The seeds are planted 5-10 cm deep in moist compost for better growth
- They should be regularly watered to ensure harvest in 12 weeks
Fun Fact: Broad beans contain nitrogen-fixing characteristics, which means they can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can utilize. As a result, they can help improve soil fertility.
Though it’s generally cold during this month, you can still plant certain cold-hardy vegetables and plants in December such as winter lettuces or hardy herbs.
Scientific Name: Lactuca sativa
Cold-weather lettuce is distinguished by compact rosettes of crisp, green leaves. It’s farmed primarily as a cool-season vegetable and is frequently used in salads, sandwiches, and other culinary applications that call for fresh, leafy greens.
Winter lettuce varieties are hardy and can withstand colder temperatures.
- Plant them in December, but before the ground freezes
- The seeds should be planted 1 cm deep and 15-30 cm apart
- Harvest the lettuce leaves within approximately 8-10 weeks
- Winter lettuce can also be harvested during the winter months
- Practice successive planting by sowing new batches of seeds every two to three weeks for consistent supply
Fun Fact: Winter lettuce is frequently high in vitamins A and C, as well as dietary fiber, making it a nutritious complement to winter meals while also contributing to general health and well-being.
Scientific Name: Salix
Willow trees are deciduous and known for their slender branches and long, verdant foliage. It’s a popular ornamental, landscaping, and erosion control plant.
- They are best planted anytime except when the ground is frozen as they take years to nurture
- Choose a moist location with well-drained soil
- Space the saplings at least 3-6 meters apart
- Patience is needed the trees reach harvestable size for their branches within 3-5 years
Fun Fact: Willows are highly adaptable and may thrive in a variety of settings. They are commonly found near bodies of water such as rivers or lakes, but they may also survive in arid environments.